Holy Languages Sanskrit Basics

Maheshwara Sutras

The Maheshwara Sutras are said to have been revealed to the grammarian and sage Pāṇini by Lord Shiva. These sutras brilliantly organize all the sounds of Sanskrit in 14 sutras. The sutras encapsulate within them the entire grammar of Sanskrit.

Each of the sutras consists of a group of Sanskrit sounds and ends with a “dummy letter” or IT letter which is not a part of the group but is placed there for technical reasons of pronunciation.

For example, in the first sutra. अ इ उ ण्।  the group consists of the vowels अ इ and उ  and the consonant  ण् is the dummy letter or IT.


Devanagari: Transliteration:
१. अ इ उ ण्।२. ऋ ऌ क्।

३. ए ओ ङ्।

४. ऐ औ च्।

५. ह य व र ट्।

६. ल ण्।

७. ञ म ङ ण न म्।

८. झ भ ञ्।

९. घ ढ ध ष्।

१०. ज ब ग ड द श्।

११. ख फ छ ठ थ च ट व्।

१२. क प य्।

१३. श ष स र्।

१४. ह ल्।

1. a i u ṇ2. ṛ ḷ k

3. e o ṅ

4. ai au c

5. ha ya va ra ṭ

6. la ṇ

7. ña ma ṅa ṇa na m

8. jha bha ñ

9. gha ḍha dha ṣ

10. ja ba ga ḍa da ś

11. kha pha cha ṭha tha ca ṭa ta v

12. ka pa y

13. śa ṣa sa r

14. ha l


The following outstanding performance of the Maheshwara Sutras will surely help you to memorize them and taste their beauty:


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